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RECX – A Norwegian Centre for X-Ray Diffraction, Scattering and Imaging

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(1)

RECX – A Norwegian Centre for X-Ray Diffraction, Scattering and Imaging

Julian Tolchard

(2)

Overview

• Organisation

• Motivation

• Capability

– What relevance is it to you?

– How do you use it?

(3)

RECX Organisation

(4)

What is RECX?

• Norwegian Centre for X-ray Diffraction, Scattering and Imaging REsource Centre X-rays

– Admittedly not a very "catchy" name

• Virtual centre across UiO and NTNU

• Funded jointly by Forskningsrådet, UiO, and NTNU

– 25.5MNOK from Forskningsrådet – >20MNOK from UiO and NTNU

• New equipment / personnel

• "Donation" of existing equipment to centre

• 5 year commitment (initially)

(5)

Where is RECX?

• Dept. of Chemistry, UiO

(http://www.mn.uio.no/kjemi/english/research/about/infrastructure/xrd-lab/)

• Dept. of Physics, NTNU

(http://www.ntnu.edu/physics/xray)

• Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU

(http://www.ntnu.edu/mse/powder-diffraction-lab)

(6)

Prof. Helmer Fjellvåg (Chemistry)

Dr. David Wragg (Chemistry)

Ole Tore Buset (Physics)

Dr. Julian Tolchard (Materials)

UiO Ass. Prof.

Ragnvald Mathisen (Physics)

Ass. Prof.

Dag Breiby (Physics)

Prof. Tor Grande (Materials)

NTNU

Who is RECX?

(7)

Why establish a National Centre?

• Maintain academic strength in x-ray scattering / imaging

• Formally link existing academic labs

– Provide a framework for exchange of knowledge/expertise/capability

• Improve communication between industry and academia

– Norway has a relatively high level of industrial XRD usage

• Provide "capability" to the Norwegian X-ray community

– Access to equipment and competence

(8)

What are the goals?

• Improve competence in x-ray scattering/imaging techniques

• Maintain and expand academic use of x-ray methods

– Both at lab scale and at major central facilities

• Direct use of the infrastructure by external users:

– 4 universitities and colleges – 3 research institutes

8 Norwegian companies

• To establish RECX as a meeting place for x-ray based research and analysis in Norway

• Keep growing beyond our 5 year mandate

(9)

RECX roadmap

• We are up and running now

– Three established, well equipped labs

• Equipment tenders in process

– Decision Nov/Dec 2012

– Installation spring/summer 2013

• Website early 2013

• Be fully operational by 2014

• Workshop early 2014

– Show off our full capabilities

(10)

RECX capability

(11)

Equipment overview

UiO

2 x Siemens D5005 Huber powder XRD

Bruker D8 DaVinci (Cu Ka1) Powder XRD (Cu Ka1) Powder XRD (Mo, Cu)

Bruker D8 Apex single xtal Single Crystal XRD

SAXS

Thin Film XRD

NTNU Physics

SAXS

Bespoke Diffractometer X-Ray Micro Tomograph

Pilatus detector for SNBL High flux source

Energy dispersive detector

NTNU Materials

Siemens D5005 (Cu Ka1) Bruker D8 Advance (Cu Ka1,2) Bruker D8 Focus (Cu Ka1,2)

Powder XRD (Cu Ka1,2) Powder XRD (Mo, Cu)

(12)

Equipment overview

• Numerous temperature stages

– Both at NTNU and UiO

• In-situ Li ion batteries

• Sample stages and holders for every occasion

– Micrograms of powder to lumps of steel, air sensitive samples

• State of the art analysis software and databases

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Capability

• Powder Diffraction

– High throughput, high resolution

– Cr, Cu, Mo radiation / reflection and transmission geometry

– Multi temperature (80K-1800K), High pressure gas (1000C, 20bar)

• Single Crystal Diffraction

– Structure evaluation and solution

• Pair Distribution Function analysis (local structure)

• SAXS (particle size/shape)

• Thin film analysis (grazing incidence and reflectometry)

• Micron resolution tomography

• Design your own experiment…

(14)

RECX capability - examples

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Powder/Single Xtal Diffraction

• Evaluation/determination of a crystal structure

W.L. Bragg, Roy. Soc. Proc. A,89, (1913), 248

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Powder/Single Xtal Diffraction

• Evaluation/determination of a crystal structure

2 T h e t a ( D e g r e e s )

2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0

Intensity

(111) / d = 3.26Å

(200) / d = 2.82Å (220) / d = 1.99Å

(311) / d = 1.70Å

(400) / d = 1.41Å

W.L. Bragg, Roy. Soc. Proc. A,89, (1913), 248

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Multi-phase analysis (PXRD)

• "Fingerprinting"

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Multi-phase analysis (PXRD)

• Quantification

51.15% BaZrO3 48.85% LaCoO3

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Structure analysis - K 2 Nb 4 O 11

2 Theta (°)

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Intensity (Arbitrary Units)

| | | | || |||||||| || | ||||||| | ||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

Madaro et. al. Cryst. Eng. Comm.13, 1304 2011

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In-situ measurements

2-theta

32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48

Intensity

150°C 170°C 190°C 210°C 230°C 250°C 260°C 270°C 280°C 290°C

*

CoO Co3O4

300°C

• Replicate application conditions

– Temperatures, atmospheres, potentials

• Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

– Co3O4/Al2O3

• Active catalyst forms in-situ

– Nano Cobalt

• Assess effect of promoters etc

• Many applications

– Phase transitions

– Multiphase quantification – Reaction kinetics

Roya Deghan-Niri, PhD Thesis, 2012

(21)

Pair Distribution Functions

• "Recalculation" of diffraction data in terms of local structure

– Takes account of non-bragg scattering

– Powerful nano analysis / local structure technique

Tripathi et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 2012, 094101

(22)

Thin Film/Texture analysis

• Nanometer thick films/multilayers on substrates

– Thickness/smoothness/orientation of single and multilayer films

• Dimensionally oriented samples (texture analysis)

– Grain orientation in metals/ceramics etc

• Tailoring and enhancement of properties

– Electrical, magnetic, mechanical

• Important industrial applications

– Semiconductors, electronics, optics etc – Metallurgy and engineering

(23)

Thin Film Analysis

• Film thickness/smoothness (Reflectometry)

θ

40nm V2O5 - 17nm Mo2N

- 22nm Li3N - 6.7nm Mo2N

Bratvold et al. In preparation

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• Low angle x-ray scattering

– Access to extremely long d-spacing values (10-100nm)

SAXS

• Scattering related to longer length scales

– Particle size, shape and distribution – Colloids, dispersions. Agglomeration – Porosity, pore spacing

• Look at solids, liquids, gels, sheets, fibres…

• Even thin films

– Grazing incidence geometry – Nano-particles in a layer/matrix

(25)

Computed Tomography

Images from Wikimedia commons

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Computed Tomography

• Three dimensional reconstruction of a object using x-ray attentuation

• Non-destructive

• Widely known medical uses

• Industrial and research applications also

– Failure analysis, quality control – Mineral distributions in rock – Porosity / channel structures – Composites

Images from Wikimedia commons

(27)

So what does RECX offer?

• All of the above, and more…

• Data collection / experiments not possible in smaller labs

– Higher resolution instruments, Tomography, Single Crystal XRD – In-situ / high temperature measurements

– Large routine sample batches difficult for us due to manpower

• Focus on education and competence

– Assistance with data collection, data analysis, problem solving

• Joint projects

• Networking and communication

• What do you want?

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Accessing RECX

• To start, no formal system

– We don't really know what the demand will be

• Directly contact the support staff:

– Julian Tolchard (julian.tolchard@material.ntnu.no) – David Wragg (david.wragg@smn.uio.no)

• We need to know what you want to do

– We can arrange which site / instrumentation to use – Plan experiment with you

– Organise who collects the data, does the analysis, give training if needed

• It is not free

– Costs will be reasonable and negotiable

(29)

Any Questions?

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